Waspmote

Features

  • Ultra low power (7µA)
  • 120+ sensors integrated on 10 Sensor Boards
  • 16 radio technologies:
    • Long range: 4G / 3G / GPRS / GPRS+GPS / LoRaWAN / LoRa / Sigfox / 868 MHz / 900 MHz
    • Medium range: ZigBee / 802.15.4 / DigiMesh / WiFi
    • Short range: RFID/NFC / Bluetooth 2.1 / BLE
  • Over the Air Programming (OTA)
  • Encryption libraries (AES, RSA, MD5, SHA, Hash)
  • Certified encapsulated line (Plug & Sense!)
  • Industrial Protocolos: RS-232, RS-485, Modbus, CAN Bus, 4-20mA

Waspmote Overview

LoRaWAN

New Radio Technology Extreme Range even through buildings.

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New Water Ions!

Now more than 15 different Ions.

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Waspmote

New Generation!

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Hardware

Waspmote hardware architecture has been specially designed to work with extremely low consumption. Digital switches allow to turn on and off any of the sensor interfaces as well as the radio modules. Three different sleep modes make Waspmote the lowest consumption IoT platform in the market (7 µA).

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Hardware

Sensor Board

There are more than 110 sensors available to connect to Waspmote: CO, CO2, soil moisture, wind, IR presence, humidity, temperature, pH, radiation, liquid, luminosity, etc. Our Sensor Boards allow developers to easily use sensors in Waspmote.

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Sensor Board

Wireless Interface

There are 16 different wireless interfaces for Waspmote including long range (4G / 3G / GPRS / GPRS+GPS / LoRaWAN / LoRa / Sigfox / 868 MHz / 900 MHz), medium range (ZigBee / 802.15.4 / DigiMesh / WiFi) and short range (RFID/NFC / Bluetooth 2.1 / Bluetooth Low Energy). They can be used solely or in combination of two by using the Expansion Radio Board.

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Wireless Interface

Industrial Protocols

Connect any sensor in industrial environments. Compatible with: RS-232, RS-485, Modbus, CAN Bus, 4-20mA.

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Industrial Protocols

Over the Air Programming

Over the Air programming (OTAP) enables software upgrades of the motes without the need of physical access. Software upgrades can be made in minutes and it is possible to choose between updating single nodes (unicast) or an entire network (broadcast).

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Over the Air Programming

Encryption Libraries

The encryption libraries for Waspmote ensure the authentication, confidentiality (privacy) and integrity of the information gathered by the sensors. To do so, different cryptography algorithms including AES 256, RSA 1024 and MD5 have been implemented.

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Encryption Libraries

Hardware

General Characterisics

Microcontroller :

ATmega1281

Frequency :

14.74 MHz

SRAM :

8 KB

EEPROM :

4 KB

FLASH :

128 KB

SD Card :

2 GB

Weight :

20 gr

Dimensions :

73.5 x 51 x 13 mm

Temperature Range :

[-30ºC, +70ºC]

Clock :

RTC (32KHz)

Power Consumption

ON :

17 mA

Sleep :

30 μA

Deep Sleep :

33 μA

Hibernate :

7 μA

Inputs / Outputs

7 analog inputs, 8 digital I/O 2 UARTs, 1 I2C, 1 SPI, 1 USB

Electrical Characterisics

Battery voltage :

3.3 V - 4.2 V

USB Charging :

5 V - 480 mA

Solar panel load :

6 - 12 V - 300 mA

Built-in sensors on the board

Accelerometer :

±2g / ±4g / ±8g

Low Power :

0.5 Hz / 1 Hz / 2 Hz / 5 Hz / 10 Hz

Normal Mode :

50 Hz / 100 Hz / 400 Hz / 1000 Hz

Sensor Boards

City pollution-Emissions from farms and hatcheries-Control of chemical and industrial processes-Forest fires.

Gases

Applications

  • City pollution- CO, CO2, NO2, O3
  • Emissions from farms and hatcheries- CH4 ,H2S , NH3
  • Control of chemical and industrial processes- C4H10 ,H2, VOC
  • Forest fires- CO, CO2

Sensors

  • Carbon Monoxide – CO
  • Carbon Dioxide – CO2
  • Oxygen – O2
  • Methane – CH4
  • Hydrogen – H2
  • Ammonia – NH3
  • Isobutane – C4H10
  • Ethanol – CH3CH2OH
  • Toluene – C6H5CH3
  • Hydrogen Sulfide – H2S
  • Nitrogen Dioxide – NO2
  • Ozone – O3
  • Hydrocarbons – VOC
  • Temperature
  • Humidity
  • Atmospheric pressure

Gases PRO

Applications

  • City pollution - CO, NO, NO2, O3, SO2, Particle Matter - Dust
  • Air Quality Index calculation - SO2, NO2, Particle Matter - Dust, CO, O3, NH3
  • Emissions from farms and hatcheries - CH4, H2S, NH3
  • Greenhouse management - CO2, CH4, humidity
  • Control of chemical and industrial processes - H2, HCl, CH4, SO2, CO2
  • Indoor air quality - CO2, CO, Particle Matter - Dust, O3
  • Forest fires - CO, CO2

Sensors

  • Carbon Monoxide – CO
  • Carbon Dioxide – CO2
  • Molecular Oxygen – O2
  • Ozone – O3
  • Nitric Oxide – NO
  • Nitric Dioxide – NO2
  • Sulfur Dioxide – SO2
  • Ammonia – NH3
  • Methane – CH4 – and other combustible gases
  • Molecular Hydrogen – H2
  • Hydrogen Sulfide – H2S
  • Hydrogen Chloride – HCl
  • Hydrogen Cyanide – HCN
  • Phosphine – PH3
  • Ethylene Oxide – ETO
  • Chlorine – Cl2
  • Particle Matter (PM1 / PM2.5 / PM10) - Dust Sensor [Only for Plug & Sense!]
  • Temperature
  • Humidity
  • Pressure

Events

Applications

  • Security - Vibration, hall effect (doors and windows), person detection PIR
  • Emergencies - Presence detection and water level sensors, temperature
  • Control of goods in logistics - Vibration and impact sensors
  • Actuation - Control DC units such as irrigation valves, thermostats, illumination systems, motors, PLC's, etc.

Sensors

  • Pressure/Weight
  • Vibration
  • Impact
  • Hall Effect
  • Tilt
  • Liquid Presence
  • Liquid flow
  • Water leakages
  • Liquid Level
  • Luminosity (Luxes)
  • Presence (PIR)
  • Ultrasound
  • Relay to control external DC units.
    (<30VDC, 1A)

Smart Agriculture

Applications

  • Precision Agriculture - Leaf wetness, fruit diameter
  • Irrigation Systems - Soil moisture, leaf wetness
  • Greenhouses - Solar radiation, humidity, temperature
  • Weather Stations - Anemometer, wind vane, pluviometer

Sensors

  • Air Temperature, Humidity and Pressure
  • Soil Temperature / Moisture
  • Leaf Wetness
  • Solar Radiation - PAR
  • Ultraviolet Radiation - UV
  • Trunk Diameter
  • Stem Diameter
  • Fruit Diameter
  • Anemometer
  • Wind Vane
  • Pluviometer
  • Luminosity (Luxes)
  • Ultrasound (distance measurement)

Smart Water

Applications

  • Potable water monitoring - pH, ORP, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Nitrates
  • Chemical leakage detection in rivers - Extreme pH values signal chemical spills, Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
  • Swimming pool remote measurement - pH, Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP)
  • Pollution levels in the sea - Temperature, Conductivity (Salinity), pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Nitrates

Sensors

  • pH
  • Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP)
  • Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
  • Conductivity
  • Temperature
  • Turbidity

Smart Water Ions

Specific Ion Monitoring Applications

  • Drinking water quality control - Calcium (Ca2+), Iodide (I-), Chloride (Cl-), Nitrate (NO3-), Magnesium (Mg2+), Sodium (Na+), pH
  • Agriculture water monitoring - Calcium (Ca2+), Nitrate (NO3-), Magnesium (Mg2+), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Ammonium (NH4+), pH
  • Swimming pools - Bromide (Br-), Chloride (Cl-), Fluoride (F-), pH
  • Waste water treatment - Cupric (Cu2+), Silver (Ag+), Fluoroborate (BF4-),Lithium (Li+),Nitrite (NO2-),Perchlorate (CIO4-), pH

Sensors

  • Ammonium (NH4+)
  • Bromide (Br-)
  • Calcium (Ca2+)
  • Chloride (Cl-)
  • Cupric (Cu2+)
  • Fluoride (F-)
  • Iodide (I-)
  • Lithium (Li+)
  • Magnesium (Mg2+)
  • Nitrate (NO3-)
  • Nitrite (NO2-)
  • Perchlorate (CIO4-)
  • Potassium (K+)
  • Silver (Ag+)
  • Sodium (Na+)
  • Temperature
  • pH

Smart Cities PRO

Applications

  • Noise maps - Monitor in real time the acoustic levels in the streets of a city
  • Air quality - Detect the level of gases and particulates in the air
  • Waste management - Measure the garbage levels in bins to optimize the trash collection routes

Sensors

  • Noise Level (dBA / LeqA) [Only for Plug & Sense!]
  • Carbon Monoxide – CO
  • Carbon Dioxide – CO2
  • Molecular Oxygen – O2
  • Ozone – O3
  • Nitric Oxide – NO
  • Nitric Dioxide – NO2
  • Sulfur Dioxide – SO2
  • Ammonia – NH3
  • Methane – CH4 – and other combustible gases
  • Molecular Hydrogen – H2
  • Hydrogen Sulfide – H2S
  • Hydrogen Chloride – HCl
  • Phosphine – PH3
  • Ethylene Oxide – ETO
  • Chlorine – Cl2
  • Particle Matter (PM1 / PM2.5 / PM10) – Dust Sensor [Only for Plug & Sense!]
  • Temperature, Humidity and Pressure
  • Ultrasound (distance measurement)
  • Luminosity (Luxes)

Smart Parking

Applications

  • Car detection for available parking information
  • Detection of free parking lots outdoors
  • Parallel and perpendicular parking lots control

Sensors

  • Magnetic Field

Benefits

  • LoRaWAN / Sigfox (double radio) [868 and 900 / 915 models]
  • Small and weatherproof enclosure
  • On-road, surface installation
  • Out-of-the-box operation (no programming needed)
  • Remote Manager
  • Extended battery lifetime

4-20 mA (Current Loop)

Applications

  • Sensors and Instruments
  • Remote transducers
  • Monitoring processes
  • Data transmission in industrial scenarios

The user can choose among a wide variety of standard sensors

Features

  • Type: Analog
  • Media: Twisted Pair
  • No. of devices: 1
  • Distance: 900m
  • Supply: 5-24V

Video Camera

Applications

  • Security - Take pictures and record videos for security, surveillance and military deployments

Sensors

  • Camera
  • Luminosity
  • Infra-Red (IR)
  • Presence (PIR)

Radiation

Applications

  • Monitor the radiation levels via wireless without comprising the life of the security forces
  • Create prevention and control radiation networks in the surroundings of a nuclear plant
  • Measure the amount of Beta and Gamma radiation in specific areas autonomously

Sensors

  • Geiger tube [β, γ] (Beta and Gamma)

Prototyping Sensor

Applications

  • Prepared for the integration of any kind of sensor.

Sensors

  • Pad area
  • Integrated circuit area
  • Analog-to-Digital converter (16-bit ADC)

Customizable

Are you interested in your own sensor selection?

Would you like us to integrate new sensors to fulfill a specific application?

Wireless Interface

802.15.4 / Zigbee

Sigfox

  • Frequency:
    • Sigfox 868 module: ISM 868 MHz
    • Sigfox 900 module: ISM 900 MHz
  • TX Power:
    • Sigfox 868 module: 16 dBm
    • Sigfox 900 module: 24 dBm
  • Receive sensitivity: -126 dBm
  • ETSI limitation: 140 messages of 12 bytes, per module per day
  • Range: Typically, each base station covers some km. Check the Sigfox Network
  • Radio Data Rate: 100 bps
  • Sigfox certificate: Class 0u (the highest level)

Note: 0dB antenna picture with representative purposes only. The provided antenna is bigger and with better performance: 4.5dB.

LoRaWAN 868 - 900/915 - 433MHz

  • Protocol: LoRaWAN 1.0, Class A
  • LoRaWAN - ready
  • Frequency:
    • LoRaWAN 868/433 modules: 868 MHz and 433 MHz ISM bands
    • LoRaWAN 900 module: 900-930 MHz ISM band
  • TX Power:
    • LoRaWAN 868/433 modules: 14 dBm
    • LoRaWAN 900 module: 18.5 dBm
  • Sensitivity: -136 dBm
  • Range: >15 km at suburban and >5 km at urban area. Typically, each base station covers some km. Check the LoRaWAN Network in your area.
  • Receiver: purchase your own base station or use networks from LoRaWAN operators

Note: 0dB antenna picture with representative purposes only. The provided antenna is bigger and with better performance: 4.5dB.

LoRa 868 - 900/915 MHz

  • Frequencies Available: 860-1000 MHz, fits both 868 (Europe) and 900 MHz (USA) ISM bands
  • Max TX Power: 14dBm
  • Sensitivity: -134dBm
  • Range: Line of Sight: 21+ km / 13.4+ miles (LoS and Fresnel zone clearance)
  • Non Line of Sight: 2+ km / 1.2+ miles (nLoS going through buildings, urban environment)
  • Antenna: 868 / 915 MHz: 4.5 dBi
  • Connector: RP-SMA
  • Encryption: AES 128/192/256 bits (performed by Waspmote API)

Note: 0dB antenna picture with representative purposes only. The provided antenna is bigger and with better performance: 4.5dB.

WiFi

  • TX Power: 17 dBm
  • RX Sensitivity: -94dBm
  • Internet protocols: ARP, ICMP, IP, UDP, TCP, DHCP, DNS, NTP, HTTP, HTTPS, FTP
  • Security protocols: SSL3/TLS1, HTTPS, RSA, AES-128/256, 3DES, RC-4, SHA-1, MD-5, WEP, WPA and WPA2 accelerated in hardware: AES, 3DEC and SHA

Wireless specifications

  • Standards: IEEE 802.11b/g/n
  • Frequency: Europe: 2.412 – 2.472 GHz, USA: 2.412 – 2.462 GHz, Japan: 2.412 – 2.484 GHz
  • Channels: Europe - 13, USA - 11, Japan - 14

Actions

  • TCP/IP - UDP/IP socket connections
  • Ten simultaneous TCP/UDP sockets
  • HTTP and HTTPS (secure) web connections
  • FTP file transfers
  • Connects with any commercial WiFi router
  • 802.11 roaming capabilities

4G

  • Model: LE910 (Telit)
  • Versions:
    • Europe/Brazil
    • America
    • Australia
  • Europe/Brazil version:
    • 2G: 900/1800 MHz
    • WCDMA: 850/900/2100 MHz
    • LTE: 800/1800/2600 MHz
  • America version:
    • 2G: 850/1900 MHzz
    • WCDMA: 850/1900 MHz
    • LTE: 700/850/1700/1900 MHz
  • Australia version:
    • 4G: 700/1800/2600 MHz
  • LTE (downlink): Europe/Brazil and America versions: 100 Mbps Australia version: 150 Mbps

Actions:

  • Sending/Receiving SMS
  • Multisocket up to 6 TCP/IP and UDP/IP clients
  • TCP/IP server
  • HTTP and HTTPS service
  • FTP and FTPS service (downloading and uploading files)
  • Sending/receiving email (SMTP/POP3)

3G

  • Model: SIM5215
  • Versions: Europe and America/Australia
  • Protocols: 3G, WCDMA, UMTS, GPRS, GSM
  • Europe version:
    • Dual-Band: 900/2100 MHz
    • Tri-Band: 850/900/1800 MHz
  • America/Australia version:
    • Dual-Band: 850/1900 MHz
    • Quad-Band: 850/900/1800/1900 MHz
  • WCDMA (downlink): up to 384 kbps
  • WCDMA (uplink): up to 384 kbps

Actions:

  • Videocall, record video and take pictures available with Video Camera Sensor Board
  • Support microSD card up to 32 GB
  • 64 MB of internal storage space
  • Making/Receiving calls
  • Making ‘x’ tone missed calls
  • Sending/Receiving SMS
  • Single connection and multiple connections TCP/IP and UDP/IP clients
  • TCP/IP server
  • HTTP and HTTPS service
  • FTP and FTPS service (downloading and uploading files)
  • Sending/receiving email (SMTP and POP3)

GPRS + GPS

  • Model: SIM928 (SIMCom)
  • Quad-Band: 850/900/1800/1900 MHz
  • TX Power: 2 W (Class 4) 850/900 MHz, 1 W (Class 1) 1800/1900 MHz
  • Sensitivity: -109 dBm
  • Antenna connector: U.FL
  • External antenna: 0 dBi

Actions:

  • Making/Receiving calls
  • Making ‘x’ tone missed calls
  • Sending/Receiving SMS
  • Single connection and multiple connections TCP/IP and UDP/IP clients
  • TCP/IP server
  • HTTP service
  • FTP service (downloading and uploading files)
  • GPS receiver

GPRS

  • Model: SIM900 (SIMCom)
  • Quad-Band: 850/900/1800/1900 MHz
  • TX Power: 2 W (Class 4) 850/900 MHz, 1 W (Class 1) 1800/1900 MHz
  • Sensitivity: -109 dBm
  • Antenna connector: U.FL
  • External antenna: 0 dBi

Actions:

  • Making/Receiving calls
  • Making ‘x’ tone missed calls
  • Sending/Receiving SMS
  • Single connection and multiple connections TCP/IP and UDP/IP clients
  • TCP/IP server
  • HTTP service
  • FTP service (downloading and uploading files)

Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) 4.0

  • Protocol: Bluetooth v.4.0 / Bluetooth Smart
  • Chipset: BLE112
  • RX Sensitivity: -103 dBm
  • TX Power: [-23 dBm, +3 dBm]
  • Antenna: 2 dBi / 5 dBi (RP-SMA)
  • Security: AES 128
  • Range: 100 meters

Actions:

  • Send broadcast advertisements (iBeacons)
  • Connect to other BLE devices as Master / Slave
  • Connect with smartphones and tablets
  • Set automatic cycles sleep / transmission
  • Calculate distance using RSSI values
  • Perfect for indoor location networks (RTLS)

Bluetooh PRO

  • Protocol: Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR. Class 2
  • TX Power: 3 dBm
  • Antenna: 2 dBi / 5 dBi (RP-SMA)
  • Max scan: Up to 250 unique devices in each inquiry
  • Power levels: 7 [-27 dBm, +3 dBm]

Application:

  • Vehicular and pedestrian traffic monitoring

Features:

  • Received Strength Signal Indicator (RSSI) for each scanned device
  • Scan devices with maximum inquiry time
  • Scan devices with maximum number of nodes
  • Scan devices looking for a certain user by MAC address
  • Class of Device (CoD) for each scanned device

RFID / NFC

  • Compatibility:Reader/Writer mode supporting ISO 14443A / MIFARE / FeliCaTM / NFCIP-1
  • Distance: 5 cm
  • Max capacity: 4 kB
  • Tags: Cards, keyrings, stickers

Application:

  • Located based services (LBS)
  • Logistics (assets tracking, supply chain)
  • Access management
  • Electronic prepaid metering (vending machines, public transport)
  • Smartphone interaction (NFCIP-1 protocol)

GPS

  • Model: JN3 (Telit)
  • Sensitivity:
    • Acquisition: -147 dBm
    • Navigation: -160 dBm
    • Tracking: -163 dBm
  • Sensitivity in motion: -159dBm
  • Sensitivity acquisition: -142dBm
  • Hot Start Time: < 1s

Available Information:

  • Latitude
  • Longitude
  • Altitude
  • Speed
  • Direction
  • Date/time
  • Ephemerids management

Expansion Radio Board

The Expansion Board allows to connect two communication modules at the same time in the Waspmote sensor platform. This means a lot of different combinations are possible using any of the wireless radios available for Waspmote: 802.15.4, ZigBee, DigiMesh, 868 MHz, 900 MHz, LoRa, WiFi, GPRS, GPRS+GPS, 3G, 4G, Sigfox, LoRaWAN, Bluetooth Pro, Bluetooth Low Energy and RFID/NFC.

Some of the possible combinations are:

  • LoRaWAN - GPRS
  • 802.15.4 - Sigfox
  • 868 MHz - RS-485
  • RS-232 - WiFi
  • DigiMesh - 4G
  • RS-232 - RFID/NFC
  • WiFi - 3G
  • CAN Bus - Bluetooth, etc...

Applications:

  • Multifrequency Sensor Networks: (2.4 GHz - 868/900 MHz)
  • Bluetooth - ZigBee hybrid networks
  • NFC (RFID) applications with 3G/GPRS
  • ZigBee - WiFi hybrid networks

Waspmote Gateway

  • Communication: 802.15.4/ZigBee/DigiMesh/868/900/LoRa/Bluetooth/BLE - USB PC
  • Programmable buttons and LEDs
  • This USB Gateway is thought for laboratory tests. For real deployments, we recommend the use of our multiprotocol router for the IoT, Meshlium.

Industrial Protocols

Connect any sensor in industrial environments. Compatible with: RS-232, RS-485, Modbus, CAN Bus, 4-20mA.

Waspmote allows to perform three main applications:

1º- Connect any sensor to an existing industrial bus

Waspmote can be configured to work as a node in the network, inserting sensor data into the industrial bus already present. Waspmote can obtain information from more than 70 sensors currently integrated in the platform by using specific sensor boards (e.g: CO, CO2, temperature, humidity, acceleration, pH, IR, luminosity, vibration, etc). This way, the sensor information can be read from any industrial device connected to the bus.

2º- Add wireless connectivity to wired buses

Waspmote can be configured to read the information from the bus and send it to the Libelium IoT Gateway using any of the wireless radio modules available: 802.15.4, 868 MHz, 900 MHz, WiFi, 4G, Sigfox and LoRaWAN.

3º- Connect to the Cloud industrial devices

Waspmote can be configured to read the information coming from the bus and send it via wireless directly to the Cloud using WiFi, GPRS, GPRS+GPS, 3G or 4G radio interfaces.

RS-485

  • Standard: EIA RS-485
  • Physical media: Twisted pair
  • Connector: DB9
  • Network topology: Point-to-point, Multi-dropped, Multi-point
  • Maximum devices: 32 drivers or receivers
  • Mode of operation: Differential signaling
  • Maximum speed: 460800 bps
  • Voltage levels: -7 V to +12 V
  • Mark(1): Positive voltages (B-A > +200 mV)
  • Space(0): Negative voltages (B-A < -200 mV)
  • Available signals: Tx+/Rx+, Tx-/Rx-(Half Duplex)Tx+,Tx-,Rx+,Rx-(Full Duplex)

Applications:

  • Industrial equipment
  • Machine to Machine (M2M) communications
  • Industrial Control Systems, including the most common versions of Modbus and Profibus
  • Programmable logic controllers
  • RS485 is also used in building automation
  • Interconnect security control panels and devices

RS-232

  • Standard: TIA-232-F
  • Cabling: Single ended
  • Connector: DB9
  • Network topology: Point-to-point
  • Maximum speed: 115200 bps
  • Voltage levels: -25...+25
  • Mark(1): -5...-15
  • Space(0): +5...+15
  • Signals: Full Duplex (Rx, TX)

Applications:

  • Bar code scanners and other point of sale devices
  • LED and LCD text displays
  • Satellite phones, low¬ speed satellite modems and other satellite based transceiver devices
  • Updating Firmware on various consumer devices
  • Uninterruptible power supply
  • Stenography or Stenotype machines
  • Software debuggers that run on a 2nd computer
  • Industrial field buses

CAN Bus

  • Standard: ISO 11898
  • Cabling: Twisted Pair
  • Connector: DB9
  • Network topology: Multimaster
  • Speed: 125 to 1000 Kbps
  • Signaling: Differential
  • Voltage levels: 0-5V
  • Signals: Half Duplex

Applications:

  • Automotive applications
  • Home automation
  • Industrial networking
  • Factory automation
  • Marine electronics
  • Medical equipment
  • Military uses

Modbus

The Modbus is a software library that can be operated physically on the RS-485 and RS-232 modules.

  • Data area: Up to 255 bytes per job
  • Interface: Layer 7 of the ISO-OSI reference model
  • Connector: DB9 (RS-485 / RS-232 modules)
  • Number of possible connections: up to 32 in multi point systems
  • Frame format: RTU

Applications:

  • Multiple master-slave applications
  • Sensors and instruments
  • Industrial networking
  • Building and infrastructure
  • Transportation and energy applications

4-20 mA (Current Loop)

The Modbus is a software library that can be operated physically on the RS-485 and RS-232 modules.

  • Type: Analog
  • Media: Twisted Pair
  • No. of devices: 1
  • Distance: 900m
  • Supply: 5-24V

Applications:

  • Sensors and instruments
  • Remote transducers
  • Monitoring processes
  • Data transmission in industrial scenarios

Over the Air Programming (OTAP)

The concept of Wireless Programming, commonly know as Programming Over the Air (OTAP) has been used in the past years overall for the reprogramming of mobile devices such as cell phones. However, with the new concepts of Wireless Sensor Networks, M2M and the Internet of Things, where the networks consist of hundreds or thousands of nodes, OTA is taken to a new direction, and for the first time it is applied using both mobile phone technologies such as 4G, 3G and GPRS and unlicensed protocols such as WiFi.

Libelium implements OTAP with the 4G, 3G, GPRS, GPRS+GPS and WiFi modules via FTP.

OTAP with 3G / GPRS / WiFi via FTP

Benefits

  • Enables the upgrade or change of firmware versions without physical access.
  • Upgrades the new firmware by querying a FTP server which helps to keep battery life.
  • Enables to upgrade an entire network in few minutes

Steps

  • Waspmote queries the FTP server for a new program version
  • Checks if program name, path and version are correct
  • Downloads the new program
  • Reboots and starts with the new program

Topologies

Protocols which support FTP transmissions are directly connected to the Network Access Point

Radio modules supported

4G, 3G, GPRS, GPRS+GPS, WiFi

Storage System

Once the program is downloaded to Waspmote it is stored it in the 2 GB SD card.

Meshlium OTA-FTP plug-in

Meshlium the gateway of the IoT network, hosts the FTP server inside. The user interface of Meshlium, called Manager System, features a plug-in which permits to configure this FTP server automatically by attaching the program binary file to be used.

Documentation

In order to know more about OTAP including how manage Meshlium to act as FTP server for the nodes of the network, download the OTAP guide from

http://www.libelium.com/development/waspmote/

Note

The concept of OTAP may have some other names such as:

  • Over the air -> OTA
  • Over the air Programming -> OTAP
  • Firmware over the air -> FOTA
  • Programming Over the air-> POTA
  • Over the air service provisioning -> OTASP
  • Over the air provisioning -> OTAP
  • Over the air parameter administration -> OTAPA
  • Over the air upgrade -> OTAU
  • Over the air update -> OTAUR
  • Over the air Download -> OAD
  • Over the air flashing -> OTAF
  • Over the air parameter administration -> OTAPA
  • Multihop Over the air programming (MOTAP)

Read More...

Encryption Libraries for Waspmote Sensor Networks

The new Encryption Libraries are designed to add to the Waspmote sensor platform the capabilities necessary to protect the information gathered by the sensors. To do so three cryptography layers are defined:

  • In the first one all the nodes of the network share a common preshared key which is used to encrypt the information using AES 128. This process is carried out by specific hardware integrated in the same 802.15.4/ZigBee radio, allowing the maximum efficiency of the sensor nodes energy consumption. This first security layer ensures no third party devices will be able to even connect to the network (access control).
  • In the second security layer each node uses a point to point encryption scheme with Meshlium -the Gateway of the network-. This way even the intermediate nodes of the network (the ones which forward the information to the destination) will not be able to see the sensor data transmitted. To perform this technique each node interchanges with the Gateway a new encryption key using RSA 1024 (Public/Private keys)what ensures at the same time authentication and integrity. Once the key has been confidentially interchanged the rest of the communication is encrypted by using AES 256 via software as it ensures complete confidentiality and privacy while maintaining the minimum resources of the node in term of computing cicles and energy consumption. The "point to point" encryption key is cyclically changed using again RSA encryption in a process know as key renewal.
  • The third security technique is carried out in Meshlium -the Gateway- where HTTPS and SSH connections are used to send the information to the Cloud server located on the Internet.

A fourth optional encryption layer allows each node to encrypt the information using the Public key of the Cloud server. This way the information would keep confidential all the way from the sensor device to the web or data base server on the Internet.

The two main cases of the usage of the Encryption Libraries for Waspmote are:

  • Transmission of sensor data
  • Key initial sharing and key renewal

Transmission of sensor data:

Information is encrypted in the application layer via software with AES 256 using the key shared exclusivelybetween the origin and the destination. Then the packet is encrypted again in the link layer via hardware with AES 128 so that only trusted packets be forwarded, ensuring access control and improving the usage of resources of the network.

Key sharing and key renewal:

Prior to start with the software encryption with AES 256 we need to share a key between each node (origin) and the Gateway or the Cloud Server (destination). To do so we encrypt the new key using RSA 1024 using both Public/Private keys. This way, we ensure authentication, confidentiality and message integrity (as we add also a seed along with the key to generate randomness in the packet transmission). Once we get the shared key we will use it to start encrypting the sensor information as seen in the previous diagram as AES it ensures the maximum performance and and minimum message overload.

Common security issues which are solved

This relationship includes:

  • Access control
  • Authentication
  • Data Confidentiality (Privacy)
  • Data Integrity
  • Data Freshness (avoiding packet injection)
  • Non-repudation

Each node may store thousands of different Public Keys of the nodes of the network in its SD card. So we can stablish a real P2P encryption among any sensor and the Gateway and even between any sensor and any web or data base server directly.

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